Controlling Eurasian Water Milfoil
Preventing a milfoil invasion involves various efforts. Public awareness of the necessity to remove weed fragments at boat landings, a commitment to protect native plant beds from speed boaters and indiscriminate plant control that disturbs these beds, and a watershed management program to keep nutrients from reaching lakes and stimulating milfoil colonies–all are necessary to prevent the spread of milfoil. Monitoring and prevention are the most important steps for keeping Eurasian water milfoil under control.
A sound precautionary measure is to check all equipment used in infested waters and remove all aquatic vegetation upon leaving the lake or river. All equipment, including boats, motors, trailers, and fishing/diving equipment, should be free of aquatic plants.
Lake managers and lakeshore owners should check for new colonies and control them before they spread. The plants can be hand pulled or raked. It is imperative that all fragments be removed from the water and the shore. Plant fragments can be used in upland areas as a garden mulch.
Mechanical Control: Mechanical cutters and harvesters are the most common method for controlling Eurasian water milfoil in Wisconsin. While harvesting may clear out beaches and boat landing by breaking up the milfoil canopy, the method is not selective, removing beneficial aquatic vegetation as well. These machines also create shoot fragments, which contributes to milfoil dispersal. Harvesting should be used only after colonies have become widespread, and harvesters should be used offshore where they have room to turn around. Hand cutters work best inshore, where they complement hand pulling and bottom screening. Bottom screening can be used for severe infestations, but will kill native vegetation as well. A diver-operated suction dredge can be used to vacuum up weeds, but the technique can destroy nearby native plants and temporarily raise water turbidity.
Hand pulling is the preferred control method for colonies of under 0.75 acres or fewer than 100 plants. The process is both thorough and selective (not to mention time-consuming); special care must be taken to collect all roots and plant fragments during removal.
Sites remote from boat traffic can be covered with bottom screens that are anchored firmly against the lake bed to kill grown shoots and prevent new sproutings, but screens must be removed each fall to clean off sediment that encourages rooting.
Buoys can mark identified colonies and warn boaters to stay away.
Whenever possible, milfoil control sites should become customized management zones. For example, colony removal by harvesting can be followed by planting native plants to stabilize sediments against wave action, build nurseries for fry, attract waterfowl, and compete against new milfoil invasions.